Access and Egress
- Physical injury.
- Asphyxiation due to lack of oxygen or being drowned in dry materials such as grain or other free flowing materials in which a person can sink.
- Gangways not properly rigged.
- Gangway moves due to tidal movement.
- Hold ladders in poor condition.
- Access to ladders restricted or blocked during handling operations.
- Unsafe means of access and egress to and from tops of cargo stows during trimming operations.
- Failure to control entry to confined spaces.
Berthing and Moving Ships
- Serious injury or death due for example to being hit by a line or falling.
- Property damage.
- Collision between berthing ship and loader and/or unloader on terminal.
- Breaking mooring lines risk to personnel on ship and terminal from snap back effect.
- Passing ships causing ship to move.
- Adverse health effects.
- Presence of insects, rodents, pigeons and other vermin.
- Exposure to dust containing bacteria or fungi.
- Bacteriological action on certain cargoes.
- Health hazards e.g. by ingestion or inhalation.
- Asphyxiation / death.
Exposure to toxic, fumigated or corrosive cargoes:
- Failure to notify that cargo has been fumigated due to lack of communication and consultation.
- Inherent property of the cargo e.g. corrosive cargoes.
- Cargoes liable to cause oxygen depletion e.g. forest products, metals, vegetable or fruit products.
- Decomposition or bacteriological action on cargo giving rise to toxic products e.g. coal, bark, fishmeal and other types of wet fish.
- Ammonium nitrate fertilisers can explode or decompose to release toxic gases.
- Some coal products produce carbon monoxide or methane.
- Cleaning holds for grain after discharging a dirty cargo e.g. use of degreasing chemicals.
- Fumes from mechanised plants and vehicles.
- Asphyxiation due to lack of oxygen or being drowned in dry materials such as grain or other free flowing materials in which a person could sink.
- Entry into an oxygen deficient hold, hold access way or trunkway.
- Atmosphere in hold may be toxic, asphyxiating or flammable as a result of the cargo or may be formed during the process of cleaning, welding or painting.
- Excess oxygen caused by leaking oxy/fuel gas cutting and welding equipment.
- Oxidation of the cargo in the hold using up the oxygen from the atmosphere e.g. pig iron, wood chips and bark.
- Failure to observe confined space entry and atmospheric testing procedures.
- Failure to have a rescue plan.
- Respiratory problems.
- Sensitisation causing effects such as asthma e.g. grain.
- Dusty cargoes with dirt, insect parts, pesticide residues, fungi and bacteria.
- Spillage from (un)loading equipment.
- Lack of dust control equipment i.e. engineered equipment.
- Incorrectly operated and/or maintained (un)loading equipment causing excessive dust.
- Unsafe system of work e.g. cargo being dropped from a height such as into the hold from the grab, from the back of truck when cargo tipped or stored on the terminal, from one conveyor to another or when a wall of residual material builds up and collapses from a bulkhead or between the frames in the hold of the ship or from the side of a hopper.
- Sweeping cargo with a brush or air.
- Inadequate communication between the truck driver and hopper operator resulting in truck driver driving away prematurely from the hopper.
- Build up of dust due to poor housekeeping.
This includes tidal movements, wind conditions, heat, cold, ice, wind etc.
- Increased risk of accident or incidents occurring.
- Serious injury.
- Property damage.
- Gangway becoming unsafe.
- Collision between (un)loader and ship's structure or gear.
- Failure of (un)loader braking system in high winds, leading to collision with the ship.
- Runaway of (un)loader and/or cranes in high winds.
- Vessels roll affecting cargo stability.
- Passing ships affecting stability.
Falling / Unsecured Objects
- Unsafe system of work when swinging loads.
- Shifted cargo during sea passage.
- Falls of unstable cargo.
- Failure of lifting equipment or accessories e.g. during lifting and suspension of grabs.
- Material / lumps of cargo falling from the conveyor belt of the ship loader or from the discharging grab onto the deck of the ship or the quay. A number of bulk cargoes such as quartz, iron ore, pig iron and steel scrap contain sizeable lumps which could cause death or injury if they fall from a height and hit someone.
- Personnel on deck walking under the grab.
- Unsafe system and/or unsafe lifting accessories for lifting equipment from the terminal to the ship e.g. whilst lifting mobile plant from hold to hold, lifting loading chutes, spouts and arms or lifting welding and other equipment into the hold to carry out damage repairs.
- Cargoes falling from ship's structures, frames, beams, ledges and ladders.
- Personnel lowering or raising equipment in and out of holds with personnel still at work underneath.
- Personnel monitoring cargo operations standing too close to where the grab is working and at risk of being struck by grab or by a breaking grab rope.
- Unsuitable lifting accessories selected for cargo with sharp edges.
- Cargo movements as loads lifted into or out of adjacent hatches or as other vessels pass.
- Improperly secured hatch covers.
- Increased risk of accident or incident.
- Working excessively long shifts or work periods.
- Lack of job rotation.
- Working between 12 and 6 am.
Fire or Explosion
- Smoke inhalation.
- Dust created by certain cargoes may constitute an explosion hazard.
- Dust build up on heated surfaces such as plant engines and electrical light fittings.
- Flammable cargo or flammable gases emitted by certain bulk cargoes.
- Incompatible materials which may react dangerously.
- Materials liable to spontaneously combust.
- Used of enclosed handling systems without explosion protection.
- Movement of some dry solid bulk cargoes can generate static electricity.
- The use and refuelling of mobile plant in ship's holds.
- Smoking and the use of naked flames.
- Flammable cargo being ignited during cargo handling operations e.g. sparks produced by steel blade or bucket striking the frame's hold.
- Cargoes decomposing, heating up and self igniting or spontaneous combustion e.g. coal, charcoal. Risk is increased by cargo being wet or by bacteriological action.
- Combination carriers including holds, pumps and pipelines not gas free when unloading dry bulk or with slop tanks or wing tanks not inerted.
- Hot work e.g. in connection with maintenance, voyage repair operations or cargo handling (fitting or removal of temporary guide bars to edges of hatch covers) without adequate precautions such as a hot work permit.
Includes equipment such as grabs, chutes, conveyors, throwers, suction devices, augers etc.
- Impact, entrapment or entanglement resulting in serious injury or death.
- Where mobile machinery is operated on top of cargo there is a risk of the machine overturning, sliding, falling or becoming damaged.
- Dangerous parts of conveyor systems not securely guarded.
- Serious injury or death e.g. due to impact with plant or equipment or collapse of crane.
- Collision between loader and ship's structure or gear.
- Unmaintained or defective equipment.
- Exceeding Safe Working Load of equipment.
- Damage to equipment e.g. leaving chains or hooks on roadways where machinery can drive over them.
Examples of machinery include grabs, chutes, conveyors, throwers, suction devices and augers.
- Impact, entrapment or entanglement resulting in serious injury or death.
- Operating bagging plants, screening equipment, grading or processing equipment without adequate safe guards.
- Use of high pressure hoses during cleaning.
Manual Handling / Ergonomics
- Musculoskeletal disorders, back injuries, sprains and strains.
- Manual handling such as shovelling, scraping of cargo in ship's holds during clean out operations.
- Operating mobile plant in ship's hold.
- Operating grab unloaders and similar equipment.
- Handling mooring lines.
- Lifting, handling, pushing and pulling.
- Noise induced hearing loss.
- Failure to hear communications resulting in increased risk of accident or incident.
- Working in vicinity of engines and transmission equipment on lifting equipment and vehicles especially when equipment used in an enclosed space such as a ship's hold or warehouse.
Skid Steer Loaders
- Serious injury or death e.g. being run over, struck or crushed by the bucket, bucket arms or material falling from the bucket, being pinned between the bucket and the frame of the machine or between the lift arms and the frame, arm of loader drops on person, fall of person whilst standing on the bucket, overturn of the machine.
- Crush injury from attachments
- Fire e.g. spills when refuelling.
- Back pain.
- Property damage e.g. damage or distortion of ship's steelwork.
- Operating the controls from outside the cab.
- Exiting the skid steer loader when the lift arms are raised.
- Leaving the controls with the engine still running.
- Catching fingers, clothing or jewellery in pinch points.
- Failure to ensure that interlocks are tested, inspected and maintained.
- Modification of equipment without consulting the manufacturer.
- Failure to adjust the seat correctly.
- Failing to turn off the engine and allowing it to cool before refuelling.
- Walking under an elevated load.
- Not ensuring that rollover protective structure (ROPs) is in place.
Slips, Trips and Falls
- Minor injury to serious injury, concussion or death.
- Wet or slippery surfaces from ice, snow, rain, cargo or oil spillage or leaks on ship or terminal.
- Badly stowed ropes, hoses and equipment on ship or terminal.
- Unmarked obstacles on ship's decks such as manhole covers, securing eyes, safety stanchion sockets.
- Personnel handling ship's stores on the terminal edge.
- Poor or inadequate lighting in work areas especially the hold.
- Walking across cargo stows.
- Using damaged or unsecured ladders.
- Holding tools or equipment whilst descending or ascending ladders.
- Uneven or poorly maintained ground surfaces.
- Poor housekeeping - waste packing materials, other cargo, debris etc. in the working area.
- Inappropriate footwear.
- Vessel roll.
- Hand/arm or whole body vibration.
- Use of pneumatic/hydraulic hammers to shake material loose between frames and from bulkheads.
- Use of powered tools.
- Operation of terminal plant.
Working at Height
- Serious injury or death due to drowning in cargo or falling from height.
- Working on top of bulk cargo without a safe system of work.
- Lack of edge protection - unprotected openings.
Working in the Hold
- Adverse health effects due to dust inhalation.
- Serious injury or death e.g. being hit by mobile plant in the hold, asphyxiation or drowning in fluidised cargo such as grain, being hit by a grab or being buried by a load from a grab or engulfed in bulk cargo due to cargo shift or collapse of cargo on worker.
- Carrying out trimming without safe system of work in place e.g. communication system, whistle stop system, signaller etc.
- Inadequate lighting.
Note: This is not an exhaustive list of hazards and risks.